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Desalination

Water desalination processes separate dissolved salts and other minerals from water.Feedwater sources may include brackish, seawater, wells, surface (rivers and streams), wastewater, and industrial feed and process waters.

Desalination

Seawater desalination has the potential to reliably produce enough potable water to support large populations located near the coast.

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Desalination

Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) processes are driven by direct current (DC) in which ions (as opposed to water in pressure driven processes) flow through ion selective membranes to electrodes of opposite charge.

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Desalination

In EDR systems, the polarity of the electrodes is reversed periodically. Ion-transfer (perm-selective) anion and cation membranes separate the ions in the feed water. These systems are used primarily in waters with low total dissolved solids (TDS).

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Desalination

Membrane Distillation (MD) is a water desalination membrane process currently in limited commercial use. MD is a hybrid process of RO and distillation in which a hydrophobic synthetic membrane is used to permit the flow of water vapor through the membrane pores, but not the solution itself.

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Desalination

The driving force for MD is the difference in vapor pressure of the liquid across the membrane.

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